A brougham was a horse-drawn carriage that had a roof, four wheels, and an open driver seat in the front. It was originally designed in 1838 by Henry Brougham who had been a former British officer who was a custodian of the seal and cabinet minister. The design of the brougham had the front cut away which enclosed one seating being forward so that two passengers could sit. Then the coachman’s seat, the driver, was attached to the front.

There were many styles to these carriages and many were created to have a horse(s) move the brougham. To have a driver and one of these brougham demonstrated that you came from a high class family. You would have both the driver and something to move in. This helps show high status in Mr. Hazeldean and the people he surrounds himself with because he he has Sillerton Jackson to drive him home after he goes out when hearing of the fire in the Fifth Avenue Hotel.

Science, Industry and Business Library: General Collection , The New York Public Library. “Brewster Brougham on Delaunay Belleville 10 horse-power, four-cylinder chassis.” The New York Public Library Digital Collections. 1903 – 1916.

The high-class man was the one who chose who his worker, in this case his butler would be. If he thought, he was suitable for the job than he would get it. “He then turns to consider the question of liability from the hirer’s point of view. This, however,” he says, “is not the case of a man employing his own immediate servants, either domestic servants or other, engaged by him to conduct any business, or employment, or occupation carried on by him.” (250-251). It was all up to the worker of the high-class man to be liable for it. Like in the novella, Mr. Hazeldean surrounds himself with high-class families and even he feels the liability from them in order for them to perform their jobs like taking him in the brougham.

Colles, A.R. “Hired Vehicles and the Relation of Master and Servant,” Canadian Law Times vol. 19, no. 10 (October 1899): p. 250-253. HeinOnline,

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica “Brougham.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Dec. 2014.  Encylopedia Britannica, inc. Dec. 2018